Refosco is an Italian family of dark-skinned grape varieties native to the northern Italian areas of Friuli, Gavi, and Trentino. Refosco is also grown in Slovenian, and Croatian parts of Istria, under the name of Refošk, or Teran, respectively. The grape is also known as Terlan or Terlano.
The wines this grape yields can be quite powerful and tannic, with a deep violet color and a slight bitterness. On the palate, there is strong currant, wild berry, and plum. The wine can stand some aging, and after a period of four-to-ten years, it achieves a floral quality as well.
In Friuli, there is a sub-variety of Refosco known as Refosco dal Pedunculo Rosso, the Refosco with the red stalk (peduncle), referring to the red stem that holds the grapes to the vine. In the attempt of making the wine more approachable to an international palate, recent versions have taken well to new oak and cold fermentation.
The most well known examples of Refosco come from the Colli Orientali region of Friuli.
Red grape variety of Friulian origin that is part of the large family of Refosco, but which is certainly the best known and appreciated. It was already known in 1700, Canciani cites it in his memoirs (1773). Particularly common in Friuli Venezia Giulia and Veneto. In the eighties, has generated considerable revival of interest is the increased attention to growing and wine-making systems, experimenting with small barrels, allowed a substantial increase in quality of the wines produced with this grape. DNA analysis of Refosco dal Pedunculo Rosso has revealed Marzemino, another ancient variety of northern Italy, as one of its parents.
Some authorities have previously suggested that Mondeuse Noire, which is primarily found in the Savoy region in eastern France, is identical to Refosco dal Pedunculo Rosso due to the similarity of the wines. DNA analysis has shown that this is not the case, and that the two varieties are unrelated.
Follows, by region, a list of all DOC and DOCG is allowed where the use of this vine.
Friuli Venezia Giulia
Karst - 85 to 100%
Colli Orientali del Friuli - 85 to 100%
Friuli-Annia - 90 to 100%
Friuli-Aquileia - 90 to 100%
Friuli-Grave - 90 to 100%
Friuli Isonzo or Isonzo del Friuli - 100%
Friuli-Latisana - 90 to 100%
Lison-Pramaggiore - 90 to 100%
Viticulture and winemaking
Environmental and cultural characteristics and needs:
He leaves large, rounded pentagonal, three-lobed; bunch medium to large, pyramidal, with a wing, medium loose, with reddish stems, wine (hence the name), berry medium, iron with thick waxy skin on average and good resistance, blue-black has good production and constant is raised mainly in the counter with a long pruning. It prefers clay and limestone, rich texture and well exposed.
Diseases and adversity:
Quite resistant to cold winter, tolerates drought and chlorosis, is susceptible to mildew and to ' peeling , intermediately susceptible to ' powdery mildew , and tolerate quite well the botrytis and esca .
According to Burton Anderson, Cagnina is synonymous Romagna. California is known as Mondeuse .